When attempting to attach a VHD (or simply create a new virtual machine for that matter) by utilizing the Hyper-V manager on a remote computer (to manage Hyper-V Server 2008) I was having issues--I was receiving the error:
Error: 'The requested operation could not be completed due to a file system limitation'
Which was not too simple to figure out!
Turns out I was attempting to use a UNC path to point to the VHD (as I figured I would have to). This is not the case--instead, in the management console on the remote machine I needed to use the local path on my actual Hyper-V server.
This resolved my issue.